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How does BlindAI protect your data?

BlindAI is able to protect user data and models by leveraging the power of confidential computing, a fast-growing new technology in cybersecurity. Letโ€™s take a look at what Confidential Computing is and how it protects your data.

The Confidential Computing Consortium (CCC) describes confidential computing as โ€œthe protection of data in use by performing computations in a hardware-based Trusted Execution Environment (TEE)โ€.

What is a Trusted Execution Environment?

A TEE, otherwise known as a secure enclave, is a highly isolated compute environment where data and applications can reside and run. Data sent to the enclave is only decrypted inside the enclave. Even if hackers or malicious insiders gain access to the host machine an enclave is running on, they will not be able to access data inside the enclave.

Trusted Execution Environment

Trusted Computing Base

One strategy to reduce the enclave's attack surface pursued by many CC solutions is reducing the Trusted Computing Base (TCB).

So what is the TCB?

Normally, when you run an application on a computer, you need to trust multiple elements: the application itself, the operating system, the hypervisor and the hardware. This doesn't mean we "trust" them in the everyday sense of the word- this means that our application could be affected by a bug or vulnerability in these elements! These trusted elements makes up what we call the Trusted Computing Base or TCB of our application.

A key difference between our two currently supported TEE environments, SGX enclaves and Nitro enclaves, is that Intel SGX has a very minimal TCB while Nitro enclaves have not pursued this strategy to reduce their attack surface area. Check out our more detailed Intel SGX vs Nitro Enclaves page for more details.


When a user wants to establish communication with an enclave, checks will first be performed to verify the authenticity of these trusted elements.

These checks will verify the enclave identity and the application running inside the enclave.


The goal of this process is to check that the code running is indeed the code of the application we are expecting and has not been tampered with. It isn't to audit the application code itself. You can think of this a bit like a checksum when you download a software!

With Intel SGX, this process also verifies that the enclave is running on genuine Intel SGX hardware, whereas for Nitro enclaves, the trusted OS is verified.

If any of these checks fail, an error is produced and the user will not be able to communicate with an enclave. For BlindAI, this means that if a user tries to connect to a BlindAI server that has been tampered with or is not running the official latest version of the BlindAI server, they will fail. If these checks are successful, the user is able to communicate with the enclave securely using TLS. The enclave's private key never leaves the enclave, so it is never accessible to anyone, not even the cloud or service provider.


With great security features come great responsibilities! TEEs also have limitations which are very important to know:

  • The official BlindAI application code must be trusted! The attestation process verifies that the enclave is running the official server application, but it does not run any checks on what the verified application code does. This is why BlindAI is open-source, so you can audit our code yourself. You can also refer to the report from Quarkslab (coming soon), the independent company who audited our BlindAI Core solution.

Note that this audit was performed on the latest version of BlindAI at the time and does not cover the client-side SDK, BlindAI API or Nitro enclaves.

  • Zero-day attacks are always a risk, even with enclaves. They happen when hackers exploit previously unknown flaws before developers have an opportunity to fix the issue. We mitigate that risk by keeping BlindAI up-to-date with the security updates of our dependencies.

Intel SGX specific

  • The manifest.toml in the client package must be authentic. The verification of the enclave during the attestation process relies on it and this check could be circumvented if the file has been tampered with!

  • Intel SGX shields the enclave from the host machine, but it does not shield the host machine from the enclave. This is another reason why we must trust the official BlindAI enclave application code, as it could interfere with the host machine.

  • Side-channel attacks. Most previous attacks on Intel SGX structures have looked to gather information from an enclave application, by measuring or exploiting indirect effects of the system or its hardware rather than targeting the program or its code directly. We keep up-to-date with Intel SGX security patches and no similar vulnerabilities were identified in BlindAI's audit.

Denial of service attacks

We are currently aware of a bug that enables denial of service attacks by uploading large numbers of models to the server instance.

Nitro Enclaves specific

  • AWS, as the cloud provider, their hardware and the enclaveโ€™s OS must be trusted. That is because Nitro enclaves are designed to separate and isolate the host from the enclave and vice versa, but they do not protect against the cloud operator (AWS) or infrastructure. (See our Nitro guide for more information.)


That brings us to the end of this introduction to confidential computing. Letโ€™s sum up what weโ€™ve covered:

  • Trusted Execution Environments are highly isolated compute environments.
  • Confidential computing technologies often pursue a minimal Trusted Computing Base (TCB) to reduce the attack surface.
  • During the attestation process, we verify that the application code in the enclave has not been modified or tampered with.
  • We also verify the authenticity of the enclave (and OS in the case of Nitro enclaves).
  • If attestation is successful, communication between the client and enclave is established using TLS.
  • TEEs, like any other technology, don't solve every problems. They have limitations and it is important to keep them in mind.

If you havenโ€™t already, you can check out our Quick Tour to see a hands-on example of how BlindAI can be used to protect user data while querying AI models.